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英语中有哪些基本句式?

英语句子看上去纷繁庞杂,但仔细观察不外乎五个基本句式。这五个基本句式可以演变出多种复杂的英语句子。换言之,绝大多数英语句子都是由这五个基本句式生成的。这五个基本句式如下:

S十V主谓结构
S十V十F主系表结构
S十V十O主谓宾结构
S十V十O1十O2 主谓双宾结构
S十V十O十C 主谓宾补结构

说明:S=主语;V=谓语;P=表语;O=宾语;O1=间接宾语;O2=直接宾语;C=宾语补足语

五个基本句式详细解释如下:

1.S十V句式

在此句式中,V是不及物动词,又叫自动词(vi.)。例如:
He runs quickly.
他跑得快。
They listened carefully.
他们听得很仔细。
He suffered from cold and hunger.
他挨冻受饿。
China belongs to the third world country.
中国属于第三世界国家。
The gas has given out.
煤气用完了。
My ink has run out.
我的钢笔水用完了。

2.S十V十P句式

在此句式中,V是系动词(link v.),常见的系动词有:look,seem,appear,sound,feel,taste,smell,grow,get,fall ill/asleep,stand/sit still,become,turn等。例如:

He is older than he looks.
他比看上去要老。

He seen interested in the book.
他似乎对这本书感兴趣。
The story sounds interesting.
这个故事听起来有趣。
The desk feels hard.
书桌摸起来很硬。
The cake tastes nice.
饼尝起来很香。
The flowers smell sweet and nicc.
花闻起来香甜。
You have grown taller than before.
你长得比以前高了。
He has suddenly fallen ill.
他突然病倒了。
He stood quite still.
他静静地站看。
He becomes a teacher when he grew up.
他长大后当了教师。
He could never turn traitor to his country.
他永远不会背叛他的祖国。

注意:有些动词同时也是及物动词,可构成SVO句式,例如:

He looked me up and down.
他上下打量我。
He reached his hand to feel the elephant.
他伸出手来摸象。
They are tasting the fish.
他们在品尝鱼。
They grow rice in their home town.
他们在家乡种水稻。
He's got a chair to sit on.
他有椅子坐。
Please turn the sentence into English.
请把这个句于泽成英语.

3.S十V十O句式

在此句式中,V是及物动词(vt.),因此有宾语。例如:
I saw a film yesterday.
我昨天看了一部电影。

Have you read the story?
你读过这个故事吗?
They found their home easily.
他们很容易找到他们的家。
They built a house last year.
他们去年建了一所房子。
They've put up a factory in the village.
他们在村里建了一座工厂。
They have taken good care of the children.
这些孩子他们照看得很好。
You should look after your children well.
你应该好好照看你的孩子。

4.S十V十O1十O2句式

在此句式中,V是带有双宾语的及物动词。常见的须带双宾语的动词有give,ask,bring,offer,send,pay,lend,show,tell,buy,get;rob,warn等。例如:
He gave me a book/a book to me.
他给我一本书。
He brought me a pen/a pen to me.
他带给我一枝钢笔。
He offered me his seat/his seat to me.
他把座位让给我。

注意下边动词改写后介词的变化:
Mother bought me a book/a book for me.
妈妈给我买了一本书。
He got me a chair/a chair for me.
他给我弄了一把椅子。
Please do me a favor/a favor for me.
请帮我一下。
He asked me a question/a question of me.
他问我个问题。

注意,下边动词只有一种说法:

They robbed the old man of his money.
他们抢了老人的钱。
He's warned me of the danger.
他警告我注意危险。
The doctor has cured him of his disease.
医生治好了他的病。
We must rid the house of th erats.
我们必须赶走屋里的老鼠。
They deprived him of his right to speak.
他们剥夺了他说话的权利。

5.S十V十O十C句式

在此句式中,V是有宾语补足语的及物动词。常带宾语补足语的词有形容词、副词、介词短语、名词、不定式、现在分词、过去分词。
常见的可接宾语补足语的动词很多,哪些动词可接哪几种形式作宾补,须根据动词的惯用法而定,不能统而概论。请看下面的例子。

They made the girl angry.
他们使这个女孩生气了。
They found her happy that day.
他们发现那天她很高兴。
I

               found him out.
我发现他出去了。
I saw him in.
我见他在家。
They saw a foot mark in the sand.
他们发现沙地上有脚印。
They named the boy Charlie.
他们给这个男孩起名为查理。
I saw him come in and go out.
我见他进来又出去。
They felt the car moving fast.
他们感到汽车行驶得很快。
I heard the glass broken just now.
我刚才听到玻璃碎了。
He found the doctor of study closed to him.
他发现研究所的大门对他关闭了。

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